Some ethnic groups prefer or abhor certain types of fish for normal domestic consumption or for certain events (ibid). Highly migratory species; Kyphosus elegans Cortez chubb A study has been made on changes which have occurred in the fish fauna as a result of the formation of the Volta Lake in Ghana. , The current president of Ghana, Nana Akuffo Addo, created a ministry of fisheries and agricultural development in Ghana. Mammal diversity in the hotspot is very high. On the Lake Volta one could count as many as 32 landing sites which often also serve as marketing centres. It contributes 3% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), provides employment to the labour force and contributes to the foreign exchange of the country is a major source of animal protein assumption and assists in the alleviation of rural poverty. Several external agencies have provided support for the development of the fisheries sector. Abudefduf saxatilis. 2914 includes Togo in the Volta system.  The law provided for a regulatory body—the Fisheries Monitoring, Control, Surveillance, and Enforcement Unit—as well as a fisheries advisory council.  These organizations, however, both of which are underfunded and undermanned, are unlikely to stop illegal fishing activities anytime soon.. Alestidae. Last month, in what was hailed as a sign that Ghana was beginning to take action, a trawler was fined $1m for catching almost 14 tonnes of small pelagic fish in a single day. Table 3. In Ghana, there are small pelagic species of the families, The main commercial tuna resources which occur in Ghanaian Waters are the, Estimates of the biomass of surveys show that the potential yield of the total, Even though there is specialized shrimps fishery in Ghana, Shrimps are caught by all fleets (except tuna fishing vessels) mainly from shallow waters and close to estuaries, (, The marine fishing industry in Ghana consists of three main sectors, namely small scale, (or, Many large canoes are motorised with 40HP outboard engines (ibid). According to Mensah at al the abundance of chub mackerel (S. Japonicus) is so variable from year to year that it is almost impossible to predict its abundance. Fish Species in Volta Includes Lake Volta (Ghana), Volta River (Ghana), Red Volta (Burkina Faso), White Volta (Burkina Faso and Ghana) and Black Volta (Burkina Faso, Ghana & Côte d'Ivoire) (Ref. The body length of Oscar is about 36cm and the mass of the body is 1.4 kg. It is also estimated about 1.5 – 2 million people rely on and /or provide support to these fishers, these include their wives, children, close relatives as well as conoe carvers, input suppliers and office workers for industrial fleet (ibid). Characiformes. Number of Marine Fishing Vessels in Ghana, Source: Marine Fisheries Division MFRD, Tema and Directorate of Fisheries Accra. native. It is reported (ibid) that the industrial fleet have undergone radical expansion in number since 1984 when Government of Ghana policy targeted industrial fishing as a mechanism for promoting non-traditional exports. Tiplapia niloticus is the main species cultured with clarias gariepinus, Heterobranchus and other endemic species (FAO, 1998) Anon 2003) There is a clam (Egeria Radiata) fishery in the lower Volta River (Anon 2003). 28192). In Ghana, there are small pelagic species of the families Clupeidae (Sardinellas, Scombridae - chub-mackerels and Engrulidae (anchovies), large pelagic species of the family Thumidae (tunas). From the 1998 full frame survey, the total number of boats of all types was stated as 24,035 using 973 motor boats and no inboard engines, (Braimah 2001). Fish, any of approximately 34,000 species of vertebrate animals (phylum Chordata) found in the fresh and salt waters of the world. It is particularly abundant along the creeks of Niger Delta, Cross River, Lagos and Ikorodu in Nigeria. Neither farmed fish products nor fish seed are exported from Ghana because production is low. In locations far away from major sources of fish protein, fish is mostly sold and consumed in smoked form (ibid). Fish catches in the Lake Volta show an initial steady rise from 3,000 tonnes in 1969 and then followed by a decline and stabilization at around 40,000 tonnes (Braimah 1999). Whilst there are traditional measures and management measures such as ‘atidjas’ (brush parks in lagoons and reservoirs) ‘hatsis’ (fish holes) ‘whedos’ (mini dams in coastal lagoons and the culture of fresh water dams (Egeira radiata) in the lower Volta, more modern forms of aquaculture were introduced in the early 1950s (Anon 2003). In 2000, there were 169 inshore vessels (. 5. Although catches have never exceeded the MSY, the industry showed signs of decline in the last six years (Mensah at al 2003). Fish imports to Ghana are mainly from Morrocco, Mauritania, Namibia, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, Senegal and the Gambia Horemans 1998, Anon 2003, Mensah at al 2003). Silversides. Smaller craft use sail power (ibid), Most vessels are dual purpose; they are able to use trawls or purse seines (ibid). , Large-scale poaching by foreign vessels has severely depleted fish stocks in Ghana's 200-nautical-mile (370 km) maritime Exclusive Economic Zone, causing major government concern. The available data (ibid suggests a consistent rise in fish exports over the years (ibid). , The Fishing sector of the country plays an important role contributing significantly to national economic development objectives related to employment, livelihood support, poverty reduction, food security, foreign exchange earnings and resource sustainability. It is suggested that about 500,000 fish workers engage in processing, distribution and Source Mensah at al 2001. The most important of Ghana’s lagoons is the Keta lagoon with a potential yield of 4,000 tonnes per annum (Balarim 1988, Anon 2003). This is a list of the bird species recorded in Ghana.The avifauna of Ghana included a total of 773 confirmed species as of February 2020. Average per capita Fish consumption in Ghana is estimated at 20-25kg higher than the World average of 13kg (ibid). Table 1. 6.3 External trade in fish products. It is estimated that over 150,000 fishers are engaged in marine capture fisheries (Mensah at al 2003). The artisanal sub-sector is the most important in terms of fish outputs in the marine sector; it in fact contributed 60-70% of the marine fish output (Mensah at al 2003. The data on the relative abundance of fish in the Lake were compared with those obtained from fish landings on the Black Volta and from the Niger river survey, as no observations of fish abundance were made on the Volta River before the Akosombo dam was closed. Contribution of Fishing towards the Ghanaian Economy, Future Plans For the Ghanaian Fishing Industry. Living species range from the primitive jawless lampreys and hagfishes through the cartilaginous sharks, skates, and rays to the abundant and diverse bony fishes. Up to 60% of animal protein in the Ghanaian diet is thought to (ibid).  In 1982 the yield was 234,100 tons, composed of 199,100 tons of marine varieties and 35,000 tons of freshwater fish from Lake Volta. The Department for International Development (DFID) through its Post Harvest Fisheries Research Programme has supported several fisheries initiatives in Ghana. 7.2 Demand and Supply of Fish. Asotiklapa. Total fish landings declined from 36,000 tons in 1971 to 28373 tons in 1998, with annual decline in catch per unit effort estimated at 0.255 kg/boat/day (ibid).